Out-of-school Youth in Sub-saharan Africa: A Policy Perspective PDF

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Or use search to find what you were looking for. We are an educational organization dedicated to developing and sharing knowledge related to nonviolent civil resistance movements for human rights, freedom, and justice around the world. The iconic struggle between the apartheid regime of South Africa and those who resisted it illustrates the complexity of some cases of civil resistance. Originally the use of civil resistance against apartheid was based on Gandhian ideas, which originated in South Africa in 1906 where Gandhi was a lawyer working for an Indian trading firm. The Afrikaners developed an explicit theology and philosophy of white racial superiority and a legal and economic system enforced by a modern military and police force that deliberately excluded nonwhites from economic and political power. That, too, failed to tear down the apartheid system, and in the end, a concerted grassroots nonviolent civil resistance movement in coalition with international support and sanctions forced the white government to negotiate. On 17 March 1992 two-thirds of South Africa’s white voters approved a negotiated end of the minority regime and the apartheid system.

Nelson Mandela was elected as the President of the new South Africa in the first free elections by the entire population. The decades of struggle saw the ebb and flow of a wide variety of strategic actions within the anti-apartheid movement. After decades of resistance to the explicitly-racist system, questions and even defections from the white power elite emerged in the 1980s as business leaders, aware of the need for a high-quality workforce and in an effort to build up a small sector of the black population, began to despair at the failure of modest reforms and increased repression. Despite its powerful security forces, mineral wealth and industrial capacity, apartheid South Africa was dependent on its nonwhite labor force, southern African neighbors, and international ties with the industrial West. As these pillars withdrew their support the regime became unsustainable.

In the 1970s, increased labor militancy and community support for opposition forces, along with the successful 1973 strikes in Durban, demonstrated the regime’s vulnerability: brick and tile workers walked off the job one January morning, prompting first transport workers and then industrial and municipal labor to follow suit. By early February, 30,000 workers were on strike in Durban. In 1985, nonviolent pressure continued to build, with 27-year-old Mkhuseli Jack organizing boycotts of white-owned businesses in the city of Port Elizabeth. In addition to direct confrontation with the regime, resistors also created alternative community-based institutions—such as cooperatives, community clinics, legal resource centers, and other organizations—that increasingly marginalized and replaced official governmental institutions.